Ward Francillon Time Symposium 2019
Time – Made in Germany

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Bernhard Huber
The Engineer of Precision Time: Pendulum Clocks by Sigmund Riefler


Josef M. Stadl, Christian Mehne
Welcome from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie

Fortunat F. Mueller-Maerki
NAWCC Welcome to the 2019 Ward Francillon Symposium

Johannes Graf, Eduard C. Saluz
Time – Made in Germany

Markus Marti – Bern
The Earliest Monumental Astronomical Clocks in Central Europe, with Special Focus on the Clock in Bern

Heike Zech – Nuremberg
Revisiting the Burgundy Clock: Research History and Perspectives

Günther Oestmann – Bremen
Clocks from Nuremberg and Augsburg in the 16th and 17th Centuries

Jürgen Ehrt, Thomas Eser, Johannes Eulitz, Markus Raquet, Roland Schewe – Nuremberg
The Henlein Pocket. A Report on its Technical Evaluation

Karsten Gaulke, Michael Beck – Kassel
On Minutes and Seconds: The Significance of Timepieces for Determining the Positions of Celestial Bodies at the Observatory of Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel, from 1560 to 1589

Eduard C. Saluz – Furtwangen
The Work of the So-Called “Clerical Clockmakers”

Reinhold Krämer – Stegen
The Cottage Clock Industry in the Black Forest Region until the Middle of the 19th Century

Gisela Lixfeld – Sulzburg
Two Roads. The Black Forest and the American Challenge (1850 – 1914)

Reinhard Reichel – Glashütte
High-quality Pocket Watches Made in Glashütte

Artur Kamp – Ruhla
Low-Cost Timepieces Made in Ruhla

Johannes Graf – Furtwangen
The Horological Industry in the 20th Century

Bernhard Huber – Höchstadt
The Engineer of Precision Time: Pendulum Clocks by Sigmund Riefler

Andreas Bauch – Braunschweig
The Time of Physicists: Timekeeping at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)