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Ward Francillon Time Symposium 2019

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Bernhard Huber
The Engineer of Precision Time: Pendulum Clocks by Sigmund Riefler

Time – Made in Germany

In September, 2019, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chro- nometrie (DGC) and its American sister organization, the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors (NAWCC), jointly organized the “Ward Francillon Time Symposium” in Nuremberg. This represents the first such collaboration between these two venerable groups.
“Time—Made in Germany” presents 700 years of the most important horological achievements in the German-speak- ing world, and convened at the Germanisches National- museum, Nuremberg. Thirteen lectures by internationally renowned museum directors, scientists, and industry and trade specialists expertly cover a broad spectrum of time- keeping topics.
This conference transcript fully summarizes the event’s presentations and documents pivotal advances in the fields of watchmaking and time measurement. They range from the first medieval monumental clocks, to important innovations from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, to mass-produced clocks of the 19th and 20th centuries. An essay on the development of atomic clocks completes the transition into modern times.



Josef M. Stadl, Christian Mehne
Welcome from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie

Fortunat F. Mueller-Maerki
NAWCC Welcome to the 2019 Ward Francillon Symposium

Johannes Graf, Eduard C. Saluz
Time – Made in Germany

Markus Marti – Bern
The Earliest Monumental Astronomical Clocks in Central Europe, with Special Focus on the Clock in Bern

Heike Zech – Nuremberg
Revisiting the Burgundy Clock: Research History and Perspectives

Günther Oestmann – Bremen
Clocks from Nuremberg and Augsburg in the 16th and 17th Centuries

Jürgen Ehrt, Thomas Eser, Johannes Eulitz, Markus Raquet, Roland Schewe – Nuremberg
The Henlein Pocket. A Report on its Technical Evaluation

Karsten Gaulke, Michael Beck – Kassel
On Minutes and Seconds: The Significance of Timepieces for Determining the Positions of Celestial Bodies at the Observatory of Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel, from 1560 to 1589

Eduard C. Saluz – Furtwangen
The Work of the So-Called “Clerical Clockmakers”

Reinhold Krämer – Stegen
The Cottage Clock Industry in the Black Forest Region until the Middle of the 19th Century

Gisela Lixfeld – Sulzburg
Two Roads. The Black Forest and the American Challenge (1850 – 1914)

Reinhard Reichel – Glashütte
High-quality Pocket Watches Made in Glashütte

Artur Kamp – Ruhla
Low-Cost Timepieces Made in Ruhla

Johannes Graf – Furtwangen
The Horological Industry in the 20th Century

Bernhard Huber – Höchstadt
The Engineer of Precision Time: Pendulum Clocks by Sigmund Riefler

Andreas Bauch – Braunschweig
The Time of Physicists: Timekeeping at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)